Home » content nzipu » Satellites: Ndị Eluigwe orbital ngalaba

Satellites: Ndị Eluigwe orbital ngalaba


AlertMe

Ọ bụghị ọtụtụ ekpe onye nwere ike mere ka ọ mata 1945 ịbụ onye kemmeeme afọ - ọ hụrụ ọgwụgwụ nke kasị oke zuru ụwa ọnụ agha na wa maara; ndị fọdụrụ n'ezinụlọ-agba ọsọ US President mgbe Franklin Delano Roosevelt (anyị 32nd president) gafere ruo mgbe ebighị ebi na ihe ịga nke ọma ya Vice President Harry S. Truman; na United Nations na-chọrọ na guzosie ike site October nke otu afọ na, n'ikpeazụ, Arthur C. Clarke, Kwuru mmewe, physics, mmiri n'okpuru osimiri Explorer, na ọkà mmụta sayensị chepụtara na-ede akwụkwọ, n'ụzọ ziri ezi, e buru amụma na biakwa obibia na isi ojiji nke mmadụ mere Satellites.

Mr. Clarke wee ghọọ otu n'ime ndị top atọ Science-Ụgha dere ya oge na-aga nke ọma, e buru amụma na biakwa obibia nke cell igwe na GPS na 1956. Ọ knighted maka ya obodo na ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị rụzuru AD 2000, na agabigawo na 2008. O mere ka ya satellite amụma na British-ekesịpde sayensị magazine Ikuku World dị ka a akwụkwọ ozi ndị nchịkọta akụkọ. Ị nwere ike na-a lee anya na ya na a njikọ: lakdiva.org/clarke/1945ww/1945ww_feb_058.html.

fig04Clarke n'ezie 2 akwụkwọ ozi na afọ: otu nke na o zitere ka magazin na a abụọ ọtụtụ ihe ndị ọzọ zuru ezu akwụkwọ ozi na hụrụ ụfọdụ mmachi mgbasa. Na mbụ, ndị satellite echiche mụụrụ ihe ndị ọzọ yiri ohere ojii. Ya kwesŽrŽ na-enwe ihe onboard mkpara na ga na-eje ozi dị ka a refueling akwụsị Tammy nakwa dị ka nkwukọrịta ngwa. Ọ buru amụma na biakwa obibia nke Satellites na banyere 50 afọ, ma na ọ mere ọtụtụ ihe ngwa ngwa karịa na; Otú ọ dị, e nweghị ndokwa maka ya iji na-enyere ugboelu ka o aro. Echiche nke geo-anyịnya Satellites (ma ọ bụ orbs na anọ otu ebe ma na-agbaso Ụwa adiana) bụghị mbụ ka Clarke; ọ nọ na-ewu na-arụ ọrụ nke Konstantin Tsiolkovsky.

The Russian satellite Sputnik enweta orbit ke mbubreyo 1957. Dị nnọọ 4 ọnwa gasịrị, na n'oge 1958, na US nwekwara a satellite (Na Explorer m) na orbit. Na 1959, na US Navy ulo oru mbụ weather satellite: Ndị Vanguard 2, nke na-arụ ọrụ nnọọ dị ka nke ọma dị ka na-atụ anya ma sochiri a obere ihe karịrị otu afọ mgbe e mesịrị na 1960 site TIROS 1, nke nwere otu nzube dị ka ya ụzọ; N'otu afọ ahụ, onye mbụ nkwurịta okwu satellite, Ahụ kwuo, na oru. The Echo bụ a n'ezinụlọ satellite; ọ bụ nanị ihe ibiaghachi n'ókè anya nke. 1962 hụrụ mwepụta nke mbụ na nke abụọ ifịk nkwukọrịta Satellites: ahụ ọsọ agba anọ na Telstar. Na 1964, mbụ geo-anyịnya satellite, Na Syncom 3, na oru. Na-adịbeghị anya, ọnụ ọgụgụ nke Satellites na orbit ka hovered na gburugburu 1000 ma ọ bụ otú ahụ. Ma ọ bụ nanị a nnọọ ole na ole agha Satellites e nyere ikike maka oké nso-elu foto nke ụwa.

The kasị wuru satellite (Na anyị maara na nke (cue ịrịba ama music)) bụ International Space Station. Ọ bụghị gụnyere ugbu a 'akuku' nke Satellitessat3 ulo oru na-adịbeghị anya, ọnụ ọgụgụ nke Satellites na e zigara elu dị n'elu iri isii na narị ise. The Satellites nke taa jupụta a dịgasị iche iche nke ụdị na ọrụ, dị ka: Intelligence / nyoputa onyeiro (Military / Government), Communication, na Earth Observation (Commercial, dị ka ihu igwe amụma na map Ndinam), ma maka ohere chọpụtara, e nwere na-akpọ egbu egbu Satellites (Military), nke na-eji na-azara ọnụ site n'ibibi iro ụta na agha site n'ibibi megidere ohere na-ekesa na ngwá (ie ọzọ Satellites). N'ihi ya, anya, naanị United States, China na Russia enwewo ike ime zaa ke ohere. Nchọgharị Satellites na-eji GPS. Biosatellites na-mere-ebu bi ihe onwunwe n'ime oghere (n'ozuzu abụghị mmadụ) maka nnyocha.

Satellites nwere a dịgasị iche iche nke orbits mee dị ka nke ọma, nke na-họọrọ dabeere na nzube ha (ma ọ bụ site na ihe ọjọọ dakwasịrị na orbital ire ere). Orbits nwere ọtụtụ mmiri; ndị a bụ: elu, centric, Eccentricity, nchepụta, enwēusòro, Special, na Synchronous. Elu bụ Satellites anya si n'elu na-orbited. Earth orbits nwere 4 elu, sitere na site ala (ruo 1240 kilomita), thru ajụ (ruo 22,236), na Geosynchronous (22,236 kilomita ruo kpọmkwem), na ụzọ niile ruo High Earth agba (n'ofè 22,236 kilomita ma ka na ụwa ndọda ubi). Mmadụ mere Satellites na elu ụwa orbit nwere a gabigara ha uru na-enịm na a elu na-ha si ụzọ nke ọzọ Satellites; ụdị orbit na-akpọkarị a mkpofu ma ọ bụ junk ma ọ bụ eli orbit (site n'ụzọ nke akwụkwọ, ọnwa na-abụkarị 238,900 kilomita n'elu uwa). mgbe a satellite bụ na geosynchronous orbit, ya orbital ọsọ bụ gburugburu 9800 ụkwụ kwa abụọ; a dị elu, ọ na-ewe ihe 1 sidereal ụbọchị-agba ya gburugburu na mbara ala anyị (nkezi sidereal ụbọchị dị n'okpuru 4 nkeji erughị 24 awa) nke kwekọrọ na Ụwa rotational ọsọ.

03_Clarke_BeltThe centric orbits anyị Satellites eji, nnọọ, bụ: Geocentric (gburugburu ụwa), Heliocentric (gburugburu Sun), na Areocentric (gburugburu Mars). Eccentricity bụ nnoo ma ma ọ bụ satellite'S orbit bụ okirikiri ma ọ bụ elliptical. E nwere 4 ọkọlọtọ elliptical ụwa orbits: geosynchronous nyefe orbit, geostationary nyefe orbit, molniya orbit, na tundra orbit. A tundra orbit nwere ọchịchọ nke 63. 4 Celsius na orbits na mbara ala na a sidereal ụbọchị; nnoo, ọ na mụ na onye na ofu ebe (ma ọ bụghị dị ka kpọmkwem dị ka a Geostationary orbit) n'elu uwa, ya elu mgbanwe dị ka ụkpụrụ nke ya ellipse. Nchepụta nke orbit bụ satellite'S ndịiche si a ọcha Equatorial orbit - otú a, a pola orbit bụ nnọọ ihe fọrọ nke nta 90 Celsius. Enwēusòro orbits ekpuchi ọtụtụ mgbagwoju anya orbital nakawa etu; onye nke mfe ihe atụ nke nke bụ retrograde orbit, nke pụtara nanị na ọ amama megide direction na eluigwe ahụ a na-orbited agbagharị; retrograde orbit na-adịkarịghị eji n'ihi na ọ na-ewe ndị ọzọ mmanụ ụgbọala ka a na-adịgide adịgide otu ebe orbit. Special orbits bụ Sun-synchronous orbit na Ọnwa orbit, Ọnwa orbit bụ mara mma nke ukwuu ihe ọ na-ada ka. Sun-synchronous orbit bụ a dị iche iche enwe kpam kpam; na nke a n'ụdị orbit, na satellite agabiga otu ebe n'otu anyanwụ oge kwa ụbọchị; ma ọ bụrụ na i chọrọ, orbit nwere ike ịtọ dị otú ahụ na mgbe ọ pụtara na ìhè anyanwụ, nke bụ ukwuu eme nke doro anya na-eche, na ihe ọ bụla onyinyo ya encounters nọ fọrọ nke nta ahụ ebe ọ bụla n'ụbọchị.

Dị ka a kọwara na mbụ, Satellites na a synchronous orbit ka otu mgbanwe gburugburu eluigwe ahụ ha-agba ya gburugburu na ntụziaka ahụ ahụ na-agbagharị nasat1 otu oge ahụ ọ na - ewe ahụ ahụ iji gbanwee otu ugboro; ụdị dị iche iche nke orbits synchronous dị iche iche bụ ọdịiche ma ọ bụ nhichapụ nke a. Mgbe a satellite ma ọ bụ n'eluigwe na-ahụ orbits a ibu eluigwe ahụ na ọchịchọ ndị ọzọ karịa 0 Celsius na na-anya si a ofu ebe (n'ozuzu chere na-elu nke ụwa), ihe-atù nke ije nke na satellite, Ma ọ bụrụ na anya na mgbe etiti oge, na-egosi na Chọpụta ụfọdụ mgbanwe nke a amaghị ọgụgụ 8 ụkpụrụ nke elu-igwe; ụkpụrụ a na-akpọ onye na analemma. Ọ bụrụ na-agba na adiana na-achụ mgbe niile na synchronous, kpọmkwem ekara a weird ọgụgụ 8 ụkpụrụ ga-agbanwe agbanwe. A dịgasị iche iche nke ihe chọpụta ụkpụrụ na kpọmkwem permutation nke ndị dị otú a 'mutated' ọgụgụ asatọ ụkpụrụ. A satellite na-ekwu na ọ bụrụ na ọ bụ 0 ka ọ na-eme ka ọ bụrụ Geostationary (aka "Clarke" - mgbe onye edemede) orbit. O yiri ka ọ ga-adị n'otu ebe ahụ na-emetụta ụwa n'oge niile na elu 22,236 kilomita n'elu ụwa. Ọ pụtara anyịnya; ọ bụ, n'ezie, whizzing thru elu-igwe na 9800 ụkwụ kwa abụọ iji nọgide na-ya ebe ikwu na ụwa.

Mgbe mbụ ife nke Satellites, anyị malitere na-ewu ọzọ mgbagwoju na oké ọnụ Satellites, na-agbakwụnye na ndị ọzọ na ndị ọzọ hey na whistles, ihe sensọ, fancier nkwurịta okwu arrays wdg Ruo ogologo oge, inwe a satellite bụ nanị kwe omume maka ụfọdụ ọchịchị na a nnọọ obere ọnụ ọgụgụ nke mammoth corporations, n'ihi na efu na oru nka mkpa iji nọgide na a satellite na orbit. Ụkpụrụ a emewo a buu uzo nke mbubreyo; a ọhụrụ na-emekarị pụta. The nnukwu ihe na Satellites ugbu a bụ nta ma dị ọnụ ala karịa. Na-akpọ nano-Satellites nwere kụrụ na mbara igwe; na "1- rọketi / 1-satellite"Paradigm bụ agaghịkwa inviolate. The nnukwu fancy Satellites bụ ka dị mkpa - adịghị na-m na-ezighị ezi; ma nke a ọzọ ife nke satellite tech awade ọhụrụ, ohere. Ugbu a, a otu igba egbe nwere ike ịnwe elu nke iri atọ Satellites. N'ihi na nkà na ụzụ ọganihu, ọtụtụ n'ime ndị a obere Satellites pụrụ inwe otu ikike na Sputnik nwere, ma e wezụga n'ihi ịbụ nta, dị ọnụ ala karịa na Mgbakọ ukwuu, ukwuu Ọsọ ọsọ. N'ihi-efu na orbital dị mkpa, nanị ụfọdụ họrọ tụrụ na Earth nwere ike na-enwe mmetụta / hụ a satellite on a mgbe nile. Nke a na-ugbu a malite ịgbanwe; biakwa obibia nke obere ma dị ọnụ ala Satellites ga-emeghe a dizzying n'usoro nke ọhụrụ nhọrọ na nkwukọrịta, Broadcasting na nnyocha.


AlertMe
Soro m

Ryan Salazar

Editor-Na-Chief, nkwusa at Broadcast Tienụ Magazine, LLC.
Ryan malitere ịrụ ọrụ na agbasa ozi n'ikuku na post mmepụta ụlọ ọrụ na-eto eto afọ iri na abụọ! O mepụtara ihe omume telivishọn, wuru nnukwu post mmepụta ụlọ ọrụ, dere maka ụfọdụ n'ime ụlọ na-eduga mbipụta na bụ audio engineer ruo afọ iri. Ryan na mbụ dere maka Broadcast Engineering Magazine, Creative ehi na ya oru e-agba na ọtụtụ akwụkwọ.
Soro m
GTranslate Your license is inactive or expired, please subscribe again!